The Vitamin Deficiency or Toxicity

Figure out the vitamin deficiency or toxicity from which the patient is suffering from. Explain what made you draw conclusions. What is the normal role of the vitamin in the cell/body?

Examples
Mary and the red tongue
While working in an extremely impoverished area of the world where the primary (and some days, the only substantial) food source is corn, you are approached by Mary, a young woman who has the largest, reddest tounge you’ve seen you agree to examine her because she complains of other symptoms. During the examination, you notice a rash that is particularly prominent on the areas of her body most often exposed to the sun, her neckline, and her hands. The woman also complains of feeling depressed and apathetic, suffering from memory loss, and having frequent diarrhea.

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Answer: I suspect that Mary has a vitamin B3 (Niacin) deficiency and is suffering from pellagra. The key symptoms that lead me to this conclusion are her red tongue, rash in sun-exposed areas, diarrhea, and confusion. I can differentiate the niacin deficiency from a riboflavin deficiency ( which also has a red tongue) because of the rash, diarrhea, and the clue that Mary eats a lot of corn. Corn contains niacin that is tightly bound to other proteins; however, the niacin can be released if corn is exposed to alkaline conditions before consumption.

1. You were tasked by your mother to visit your cousin who had given birth at home to a beautiful baby girl, named Suzy upon arriving at her home you saw blood oozing out from Suzy’s mouth and nose. Your cousin panicked and asked what to do. You advised her to immediately go to the nearest emergency room for proper management. While Suzy was attended by the doctor, you were able to ask your cousin about other signs and symptoms manifested by Suzy. She mentioned that Suzy bruises easily especially around her head and face, has tarry or black stools, and pale skin. She added that Suzy was not given a vitamin when she was born and was exclusively breastfed ever since.

2. Olivia had never been a fan of vegetables and fruits so when she heard that she could lose weight by just consuming 1, 200 calories of the foods she liked she decided to completely cut out fruits and vegetables from her diet. Although Olivia is not an alcoholic. She does go out occasionally to drink with her friends and family after a while Olivia noticed that she had some bleeding under her skin along with bruises, spongy and bleeding gums, and some aching of her joints. Olivia decided that she needed to seek medical attention where she would be able to get diagnosed.

3. A woman named Desiree is in the early week of her pregnancy. She had been experiencing morning sickness and has been trying to find a treatment for her nausea and vomiting. A friend of desire recommended her to take a natural supplement that she claims helped her morning sickness during her pregnancy. Desiree agreed and started taking this supplement for an extended period. Desiree began experiencing peripheral neuropathy, showing numbness in her hand and feet. She immediately stopped ingesting the supplement s which resolved her symptoms.

4. As being one of five children in a socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhood, Henry’s upbringing encompassed small portions of food each day, which caused him to be super thin. Regardless of the circumstances, Henry would be described as a picky eater. He did not enjoy cereals, milk, beef, or vegetables. As life took its course, Henry reached the age of 21 and began to party uncontrollably. Before you knew it, he was an alcoholic for few weeks on end, he’d have a head, feel sluggish, had difficulty grasping items, and constantly use the restroom. Nearly every day he’d describe his feet as “on fire” but assumed it was the dancing.

5. Jenny who is a 23-year-old woman has bald patches on the scalp. She also had half off patches on the other part of the body. She went to do the examination because she was frustrated with her hair loss and complained about having nausea and muscle pain. She also mentioned having confusion and memory problems.

6. Max is 35 years old, she has come in for her yearly check-up. She is asked what she eats on a normal day. She responds by saying she only drinks coffee without dairy for breakfast because she is a vegan. Then followed by lunch and dinner which may include wine. She is then asked if she had any concerns, she responds that she has trouble walking at night in her house or driving her car in the evening. She has been having difficulty seeing dim light. During her examinations, her eyes appear to have hardened near her eyelids and do not show enough mucus on her cornea. She states that she had also been struggling with dry eyes.

7. Bobby is a 41year old male that is an alcoholic that smokes 3 packs of cigarettes daily. Because of Bobby’s addiction, he does not often eat a balanced diet that contains fruit s and vegetables. One day bobby notices he has a red /brownish rash forming around the hair follicles in various places on his body. He pays no attention to it and continues to drink and smoke, as well as forgetting to eat because he is intoxicated. As time progresses boby noticed that his skin is brushing more easily, and cute take longer to heal if they heal at all. Bobby is getting sicker as time progresses, he decides to go to the doctor when a new but alarming symptom appears his gums are spongy and start bleeding with the slightest touch. Boby is scared he could die from infection because his teeth are fallen out and most of his joints are swollen and achy.

8. Joana is a 23-year-old vegan with a very strict diet. She never eats meat, drinks milk, or eats eggs. Her diet is always free of all kinds of animal products. Joanna recently started feeling a loss of appetite, weight loss, extreme fatigue, and poor balance. She visits the doctor and they also notice that her skin is pale with a yellow hint to it and a small amount of what could vitiligo.

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